This area is fully editable and gives you the opportunity to go into more detail about your business, what you do and what sets you apart from the competition.

This area is fully editable and gives you the opportunity to go into more detail about your business, what you do and what sets you apart from the competition.

This area is fully editable and gives you the opportunity to go into more detail about your business, what you do and what sets you apart from the competition.

Delta Group Engineering

Treatises
Cosmology, Particle Physics, Hubble Constant, CMBR, Big Bang, Photons, Light
Cosmology, Particle Physics, Hubble Constant, CMBR, Big Bang, Photons, Light
Cosmology, Particle Physics, Hubble Constant, CMBR, Big Bang, Photons, Light

General Relativity (GR) states that matter generates “curvature” within the vacuum of space surrounding it, and that this curvature gives rise to inertial force and gravitational attraction amongst objects. The Electro-Gravi-Magnetics method, is an engineering approach systematically developing the commonality connecting GR, Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Part One of the series presents the layman reader with a conceptual introduction to the Electro-Gravi-Magnetics method.

The Quinta Essentia series, describes the development of a mathematical method termed "Electro-Gravi-Magnetics" (EGM). This text is a summarised presentation of the key results and findings of Parts Three and Four. The EGM method generates new predictions and confirms well-established experimental observations, particularly in the fields of Particle-Physics and Cosmology. It is our explicit hope that the material presented will inspire new ideas and experiments dealing directly with matter-space-time modification, by either applying EGM methods or through the development of one’s own approach.

Particle physics is a rapidly expanding and highly dynamic field supporting a landscape of constantly changing hues. Experimental boundaries are being shifted with exciting reductions in uncertainty at a staggering pace. This text develops the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) construct to define relationships between the distributions of mass-energy over space-time of fundamental particles. The correlation of EGM calculations for mass & "size" to experimental evidence is astonishing, to at least four orders of magnitude greater that can be physically measured.

In Part 4, principles of mass-energy distribution and similitude by Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) equilibria are utilised to derive the values of the present Hubble constant "H0" and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature "T0". It is demonstrated that a mathematical relationship exists between the Hubble constant and CMBR temperature such that "T0" is derived from "H0". The values derived are "67.0843 (km/s/Mpc)" and "2.7248 (K)" respectively. We also derive improved estimates for the solar distance from the Galactic centre "R0" and total Galactic mass "MG" as being "8.1072 (kpc)" and "6.3142x1011 (solar-masses)" respectively. The construct presented implies that the observed "accelerated expansion" of the Universe is attributable to the determination of the ZPF energy density threshold "UZPF" being "< -2.52 x10-13 (Pa)". Moreover, it is graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble constant in the time domain is presently positive.

Cosmology, Particle Physics, Hubble Constant, CMBR, Big Bang, Photons, Light

The Core Series

Cosmology, Particle Physics, Hubble Constant, CMBR, Big Bang, Photons, Light

A compilation of the core concepts in the Quinta Essentia series (Part 2,3,4); in a convenient reference handbook.

Proceedings
The Natural Philosophy of The Cosmos (A): Riccardo C. Storti

Published in the proceedings of the Australian Institute of Physics (AIP), 18th National Congress incorporating the 27th AINSE Plasma Science Conference.

Key Words: Big-Bang, CMBR, Cosmological Evolution / Expansion / History / Inflation, Dark Energy / Matter, Gravitation, Hubble Constant.
Derivation of the Photon Mass-Energy Threshold: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato

Proc. SPIE 5866, 207 (2005)

An analytical representation of the mass-energy threshold of a Photon is derived utilising finite reciprocal harmonics. The derived value is "<5.75 x 10-17 (eV)" and is within 4.3 (%) of the Eidelman et. al. value endorsed by the Particle Data Group (PDG) "< 6 x 10-17 (eV)". The PDG value is an adjustment of theoretical predictions to fit physical observation. The derivation presented herein is without adjustment and may represent physical evidence of the existence of Euler's Constant in nature at the quantum level.
Derivation of the Photon & Graviton Mass-Energies & Radii: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato

Proc. SPIE 5866, 214 (2005)

The construct herein utilises the Photon Mass-Energy Threshold, as derived by Storti et. al., to facilitate the precise derivation of the mass-energies of a Photon and Graviton. Moreover, recognising the wave-particle duality of the Photon, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) charge radii of a free Photon and Graviton is derived to high computational precision. In addition, the RMS charge diameters of a Photon and Graviton are shown to be in agreement with generalised Quantum Gravity (QG) models, implicitly supporting the limiting definition of the Planck length.
The Natural Philosophy of Fundamental Particles: Riccardo C. Storti

Proc. SPIE 6664, 66640J (2007)

Theoretical estimates and correlations, based upon the Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM) Photon radiation method, are presented for the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) charge radius and Mass-Energy of many well established subatomic particles. The EGM method is a set of engineering equations and techniques derived from the purely mathematical construct known as Buckingham's "Π" (Pi) Theory. The estimates and correlations coincide to astonishing precision with experimental data presented by the Particle Data Group (PDG), CDF, D0, L3, SELEX and ZEUS Collaborations. Our tabulated results clearly demonstrate a possible natural harmonic pattern representing all fundamental subatomic particles. In addition, our method predicts the possible existence of several other subatomic particles not contained within the Standard Model (SM). The accuracy and simplicity of our computational estimates demonstrate that EGM is a useful tool to gain insight into the domain of subatomic particles.
The Natural Philosophy of The Cosmos (B): Riccardo C. Storti

Proc. SPIE 7421, 74210H (2009)

Application of the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) Photon radiation method on a Cosmological scale suggests "the nature of light" to be that of propagating matter; facilitating the derivation of the present values of the Hubble Constant "H0" and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) Temperature "T0". It is demonstrated that a mathematical relationship exists between the Hubble Constant and CMBR Temperature such that "T0" is derived from "H0". The values derived are "67.0843 (km/s/Mpc)" and "2.7248 (K)" respectively. Consequently, utilising the experimental value of "T0", improved estimates are derived for the Solar Distance from the Galactic Centre "R0" and total Galactic Mass "MG" as being "8.1072 (kpc)" and "6.3142 x1011 (Solar-Masses)" respectively. The EGM construct implies that the observed "Accelerated Expansion" of the Universe is attributable to the determination of the Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) Energy Density Threshold "UZPF" being "< -2.52 x10-13 (Pa)" [i.e. "< -0.252 (mJ/km3)"]. Moreover, it is graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble Constant in the time domain is presently positive (i.e. "dH/dt > 0").
The Extraterrestrial Casimir Effect: Riccardo C. Storti

Proc. SPIE 8121, 81210N (2011)

Application of the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) Photon radiation method to the Casimir Effect (CE), suggests that the experimentally verified (terrestrially) neutrally charged Parallel-Plate configuration force, may differ within extraterrestrial gravitational environments from the gravitationally independent formulation by Casimir. Consequently, the derivation presented herein implies that a gravitationally dependent CE may become an important design factor in nanotechnology for extraterrestrial applications (ignoring finite conductivity + temperature effects and evading the requirement for Casimir Force corrections due to surface roughness).
Manuscripts
Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM)
Practical Modelling Methods of the Polarizable Vacuum
Part I: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 19 No. 1 March 2006

It is hypothesised that coupling exists between electromagnetic (EM) fields and the local value of gravitational acceleration g. Buckingham's Π theory (BPT) is applied to establish a mathematical relationship that precipitates a set of modelling equations, Pi (Π) groupings. The Π groupings are reduced to a single expression in terms of the speed of light and an experimental relationship function. This function is interpreted to represent the refractive index and is demonstrated to be equivalent to the polarizable vacuum (PV) model representation of general relativity. Assuming dynamic, kinematic, and geometric similarity between the PV and the BPT derivation, it is implied that the PV may also be represented as a superposition of EM fields. It is conjectured that by applying an intense superposition of fields within a single frequency mode, it may be possible to modify the refractive index at that frequency within the test volume of an experiment. This may significantly reduce the experimental complexity and energy requirements necessary to locally affect “g”.

Part II: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 19 No. 2 June 2006

In “Electrogravimagnetics: Practical Modelling Methods of the Polarizable Vacuum — I”, by application of Buckingham's Π theory, it was demonstrated how constant acceleration may be derived from a superposition of electromagnetic (EM) fields. An experimentally determined relationship function K0(ω,X) was predicted that couples gravitational acceleration to the intensity of an applied EM field, in agreement with the equivalence principle and the polarizable vacuum (PV) model. The EM field was then decomposed into its constituent frequency modes and their respective intensities to show that their summation results in constant acceleration as the number of harmonic frequencies in the field tends to infinity. This paper is an extension of previous work, intended to present a hypothesis to be tested and to demonstrate how K0(ω,X) may be expressed, by decomposition, as two relationship functions that may be directly measured by experimentation. This results in two representations that are proportional to solutions of the Poisson and Lagrange equations. It is demonstrated that the ratio of the resulting relationship functions is proportional to the square of the magnitude of the resultant Poynting vector. This property, in conjunction with the orientation of the resultant Poynting vector, may be utilised as a practical design tool for engineering the PV by the application of “off‐the‐shelf” EM modelling software.

Part III: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 19 No. 3 September 2006

Engineering expressions are developed for experimental investigations involving coupling between electromagnetism and gravity. It is shown that an accelerated reference frame may be derived from a superposition of applied electromagnetic (EM) fields and may be characterised by the magnitude of the Poynting vectors. Based on dimensional similarity and the equivalence principle, the engineered acceleration may be used to modify the gravitational acceleration "g" at the surface of Earth. An engineered change in the value of the refractive index corresponds to an incremental change in the gravitational potential energy. The magnitude of this change and the similarity between an experimental prototype (EP) and the local gravitational environment may then be characterised by a critical ratio KR such that the gravitational acceleration is reduced to zero within a bench‐top test volume, when KR = 1. An engineered refractive index equation is derived that may be used for EM metric engineering purposes. A hypothetical “engineered” polarizable vacuum metric line element is then presented as an example.

Part IV: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 19 No. 4 December 2006

An experimental prediction is developed considering gravitational acceleration "g" as a purely mathematical function. This expands potential experimental avenues in relation to the hypothesis to be tested presented in “Practical modelling methods of the polarizable vacuum — II”. Subsequently, the construct herein presents the following: (i) a pseudo‐electromagnetic, pseudo‐propagating transverse plane wave harmonic representation of gravitational fields at a mathematical point, arising from geometrically spherical objects, using modified complex Fourier series; (ii) characteristics of the amplitude spectrum based on (i); (iii) derivation of the fundamental harmonic frequency based on (i); and (iv) characteristics of the frequency spectrum of an implied zero‐point field based on (i) and the assumption that an electromagnetic relationship exists over a change in displacement across a practical bench-top test volume.

Part V: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 20 No. 1 March 2007

An experimental prediction is developed considering gravitational acceleration "g" as a purely mathematical function across an elemental displacement utilising modified complex Fourier series. This is evaluated to illustrate that the contribution of low‐frequency harmonics is trivial relative to high‐frequency harmonics when considering “g”. Moreover, the formulation and development of the critical boundary leading to the proposition that the dominant bandwidth arising from the formation of beats is several orders of magnitude above the TeraHertz range, terminating at the Zero‐Point-Field beat cut‐off frequency, is presented. In addition, it is proposed that the modification of “g” is dominated by the magnitude of the applied magnetic field vector BA and that the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic spectrum is an extension of the classical ElectroMagnetic spectrum.

Part VI: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 20 No. 2 June 2007

A number of tools to facilitate the experimental design process are presented. These include the development of a design matrix based on the unit‐amplitude spectrum and the derivation of harmonic and spectral similarity equations, critical phase variance, critical field strengths, and critical frequency.

Part VII: Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 20 No. 3 September 2007

An experimental prediction is formulated, hypothesising the existence of a resonant modal condition for application to classical parallel‐plate Casimir experiments. The resonant condition is subsequently utilised to derive the Casimir force to high precision. The results obtained suggest Casimir forces arise due to polarizable vacuum pressure imbalance between the plates induced by the presence of a physical boundary excluding low‐energy harmonic modes.
Derivation of fundamental particle radii: Electron, Proton and Neutron

Riccardo C. Storti and Todd J. Desiato, Physics Essays, Vol. 22, No. 1, March 2009

Experimental predictions are derived from first principles for the root-mean-square (RMS) charge radii of a free electron, proton, and neutron to high computational precision [0.0118 (fm), 0.8305 ± 0.0001 (fm) and 0.8269 (fm), respectively]. This places the derived value of the proton radius to within 0.38 (%) of the average Simon and Hand predictions [0.8335 (fm)], arguably the two most precise and widely cited references since the 1960s. Most importantly, the SELEX Collaboration has experimentally verified the proton radius prediction derived herein to extremely high precision as being [√[0.69 (fm2)] = 0.8307 (fm)]. The derived value of electron radius compares favourably to results obtained in high-energy scattering experiments [0.01 (fm)] as reported by Milonni et al. It is also illustrated that a change in electron mass of = + 0.04 (%) accompanies the high-energy scattering measurements. This suggests that the electron radius depends on the manner in which it is measured and the energy absorbed by the electron during the measuring process. The fine structure constant is also derived, to within 0.026 (%) of its National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) value, utilising the electron and proton radii construct herein. In addition, it is also illustrated that the terminating gravitational spectral frequency for each particle, as described previously by Storti et al., may be expressed simply in terms of Compton frequencies.

Selected Literature
Derivation of the ElectroMagnetic radii of fundamental particles, the emission / absorption spectrum of the Hydrogen atom & an experimentally implicit definition of the Bohr Radius

This manuscript demonstrates that the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) construct accurately derives: (i) the Neutron Mean Square Charge Radius [to within 0.296 (%)], (ii) the Neutron Magnetic Radius [to within 0.003(%)], (iii) the Proton Electric Radius [to within 0.062 (%)], (iv) the Proton Magnetic Radius [to within 0.825 (%)], (v) the Classical Proton RMS Charge Radius [to within 0.046 (%)], (vi) a precise mathematical representation of the Neutron Charge Distribution and all its key features and (vii) the “1st” term of the emission / absorption spectrum of the Hydrogen atom (Balmer Series) [to within 0.131 (%)]. Subsequently, the derivation of the complete spectrum is inferred. Additionally, an experimentally implicit definition of the Bohr Radius [to within 0.353 (%) of the classical representation] is also derived.

The Natural Philosophy of the Cosmos (C)

Key Words: Big-Bang, CMBR, Cosmological Evolution / Expansion / History / Inflation, Dark Energy / Matter, Gravitation, Hubble constant.

Polarizable Vacuum (PV) and the Schwarzschild Solution

The Polarizable Vacuum (PV) model is examined for a solution that is mathematically equivalent to the Schwarzschild solution of Einstein’s equations for general relativity. A simple solution is found and the resulting Lagrangian density and equation of motion are presented for further investigation.


Polarizable Vacuum (PV) and the Reissner-Nordstrom Solution

In a previous publication the author showed that the Polarizable Vacuum (PV) model of Dicke with a modified Lagrangian density produced a solution that is mathematically equivalent to the Schwarzschild solution of Einstein’s equations for general relativity. In this paper it is shown that the same PV model with modified Lagrangian also gives an exact solution to the charged mass point metric of Reissner and Nordstrom.